The Population Research Institute carries out research in  population studies, family sociology, and sexology We study family formation, childbearing and childlessness, the integration of immigrants, and couple relations, sexuality and sexual well-being. The annual Family Barometer Survey covers key issues in family life and policies. The PRI also publishes the Finnish Yearbook of Population Research.

Väestöliitto's Clinics carry out clinical and other research on the well-being of children born with the help of assisted fertility treatments as well as the well-being of the children's families. Väestöliitto's Clinics have research cooperation with Finnish universities and hospitals as well as Nordic IVF clinics. Additionally, the Clinics cooperate in international projects.

The library and information service of Väestöliitto serves both customers outside the organization as well as Väestöliitto's staff.